Alternative sources of water for power plant cooling:


Impaired waters are of increasing interest as alternative sources of makeup water for thermoelectric power plant recirculating cooling water systems.

Secondary treated municipal wastewater is the most widely available impaired water while passively treated mine drainage is only available in the coal and metal mining regions of the U.S. Ash transport water is available at many thermoelectric power plants and could be internally reused for cooling without much additional treatment.

The McIntosh Power Plant (Unit 4) in Lakeland, FL and Clark Power Plant (Nevada Power Company) in Las Vegas, NV are power plants that use secondary treated sewage effluent in their cooling water system. The Panda-Brandywine generating facility in Brandywine, MD use tertiary treated municipal waste water for the cooling water system.

In the U.S., 17 power plants were reported employing treated municipal wastewater as cooling system makeup in 1986 (Ehrhardt et al., 1986), while a recent survey identified 47 power plants using treated municipal wastewater in recirculating cooling water systems (Veil, 2007). Most of the reported 47 plants are in southwestern regions and Florida, corresponding to the regions susceptible to water supply constraints.



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